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2016年4月23日托福阅读真题及答案解析

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  2016年托福阅读真题及答案已经公布了,出国留学网托福考试频道为大家整理提供“2016年4月23日托福阅读真题及答案解析”。希望能帮到您!

  第一篇:社科类文章

  先说以前一个master一年只能做十几个表,特别painstaking只有富人才能买得起。后来有个人叫Elf,他简化了钟表制造的材料,创新了一些设备,行了一系列变革,通过专业化啊水力啊,让表产量变大,又轻,又便宜。本来特别重,不好运输,他就把弄得更轻了,可以挂住,不用专门做cabinet了。然后使钟表让中产阶级也买得起,从精细制造变成mass production。后来他为了peddler就继续发明创造,然后在1816年造出了shelf clock获得专利,但是还是有很多人抄袭模仿,这些模仿也在一定程度上促进了钟表的精细化。他有个员工叫Jerome,借鉴了上一个老板的经验,然后和 Elf一起将钟表变得美观时尚又物廉价美。

  第二篇 历史类文章

  在泰国附近出现的一个D文明,语言和Mon语言有联系。信奉佛教,并且有很多的贸易路线。因为用的都是这个文字讲了好多什么雕塑啊乱七八糟的,最后说甚至不清楚有没有一个capital,不知道正值也不知道ethic,这个文明出现在6世纪,到了9世纪的时候,有另一批人到达了这里。

  第三篇 生物类文章

  考古学家如何区分家养的和野生的动植物,先说有好多方法可以区分,但有的时候很难分,他们的特征可能一样又列举了一堆区分方法,每个都有点问题,后来说一般都运用floated的技术使有机物和别的分离,这样就可以分析植物家养与否。但是动物没有这么好区分,因为很多特征在家养的和野生的动物身上都可以提现,所以有另外的办法,就是看人类的捕杀数量和对象,在某个时间,人类杀成年的动物数量很多,证明人类那时就有选择性的捕猎,但是这个办法需要好好考虑,因为有很多因素,比如雌雄和动物数量波动很大等三个原因。还有一个发现就是一些属于XX时代的磨光的石头,然后又说农业的发展让他们建了一堆谷仓啊,容器的来储藏粮食,所以不太可能游牧。这些都证明了在向驯养的转变,最后一段说不能只根据clay pot来证明驯养的举日本的例子。

  词汇题:

attest to=provide evidence of

fragments=pieces

painstaking=taking great effort to

substantial=considerable

configuration=arrangement

precise=accurate

distinctive=recognizable

in contrast to=as opposed to

dispersal=distribution

imitator=someone who copied his work

associated with=related to

  第一篇:

  题材划分:社科类文章

  主要内容:

  制造表的发展。

  先说以前一个master一年只能做十几个表,特别painstaking只有富人才能买得起。后来有个人叫Elf,他简化了钟表制造的材料,创新了一些设备,行了一系列变革,通过专业化啊水力啊,让表产量变大,又轻,又便宜。本来特别重,不好运输,他就把弄得更轻了,可以挂住,不用专门做cabinet了。然后使钟表让中产阶级也买得起,从精细制造变成mass production。后来他为了peddler就继续发明创造,然后在1816年造出了shelf clock获得专利,但是还是有很多人抄袭模仿,这些模仿也在一定程度上促进了钟表的精细化。他有个员工叫Jerome,借鉴了上一个老板的经验,然后和Elf一起将钟表变得美观时尚又物廉价美。

  解析:整体文章词汇相对较简单,没有生涩难懂的学术词汇,只是第一篇相对而言比较难进入状态,所以一定要调整好自己的心态。

  相似TPO练习推荐:

  TPO30- The Invention of the Mechanical Clock

  TPO16- Development of the Periodic Table

  相关文章:

  The Invention of the Mechanical Clock

  In Europe, before the introduction of the mechanical clock, people told time by sun (using, for example, shadow sticks or sun dials) and water clocks. Sun clocks worked, of course, only on clear days; water clocks misbehaved when the temperature fell toward freezing, to say nothing of long-run drift as the result of sedimentation and clogging. Both these devices worked well in sunny climates; but in northern Europe the sun may be hidden by clouds for weeks at a time, while temperatures vary not only seasonally but from day to night.

  Medieval Europe gave new importance to reliable time. The Catholic Church had its seven daily prayers, one of which was at night, requiring an alarm arrangement to waken monks before dawn. And then the new cities and towns, squeezed by their walls, had to know and order time in order to organize collective activity and ration space. They set a time to go to sleep. All this was compatible with older devices so long as there was only one authoritative timekeeper; but with urban growth and the multiplication of time signals, discrepancy brought discord and strife. Society needed a more dependable instrument of time measurement and found it in the mechanical clock.

  We do not know who invented this machine, or where. It seems to have appeared in Italy and England (perhaps simultaneous invention) between 1275 and 1300. Once known, it spread rapidly, driving out water clocks but not solar dials, which were needed to check the new machines against the timekeeper of last resort. These early versions were rudimentary, inaccurate, and prone to breakdown.

  Ironically, the new machine tended to undermine Catholic Church authority. Although church ritual had sustained an interest in timekeeping throughout the centuries of urban collapse that followed the fall of Rome, church time was nature’ s time. Day and night were divided into the same number of parts, so that except at the equinoxes, days and night hours were unequal; and then of course the length of these hours varied with the seasons. But the mechanical clock kept equal hours, and this implied a new time reckoning. The Catholic Church resisted, not coming over to the new hours for about a century. From the start, however, the towns and cities took equal hours as their standard, and the public clocks installed in town halls and market squares became the very symbol of a new, secular municipal authority. Every town wanted one; conquerors seized them as especially precious spoils of war; tourists came to see and hear these machines the way they made pilgrimages to sacred relics.

  The clock was the greatest achievement of medieval mechanical ingenuity. Its general accuracy could be checked against easily observed phenomena, like the rising and setting of the sun. The result was relentless pressure to improve technique and design. At every stage, clockmakers led the way to accuracy and precision; they became masters of miniaturization, detectors and correctors of error, searchers for new and better. They were thus the pioneers of mechanical engineering and served as examples and teachers to other branches of engineering.

  The clock brought order and control, both collective and personal. Its public display and private possession laid the basis for temporal autonomy: people could now coordinate comings and goings without dictation from above. The clock provided the punctuation marks for group activity, while enabling individuals to order their own work (and that of others) so as to enhance productivity. Indeed, the very notion of productivity is a by-product of the clock: once on can relate performance to uniform time units, work is never the same. One moves from the task-oriented time consciousness of the peasant (working on job after another, as time and light permit) and the time-filling busyness of the domestic servant (who always had something to do) to an effort to maximize product per unit of time.

  第二篇

  题材划分:历史类文章

  主要内容:

  在泰国附近出现的一个D文明,语言和Mon语言有联系。信奉佛教,并且有很多的贸易路线。因为用的都是这个文字讲了好多什么雕塑啊乱七八糟的,最后说甚至不清楚有没有一个capital,不知道正值也不知道ethic,这个文明出现在6世纪,到了9世纪的时候,有另一批人到达了这里。

  解析:

  就文章题材而言,是TPO和托福考试中经常出现的题材类型,关于某种文明的起源和发展,文章结构比较简单,没有特别难的单词,难度一般。

  相似TPO练习推荐:

  TPO26- Sumer and the First Cities of the Ancient Near East

  TPO5- The Origin of the Pacific Island People

  相关文章:

  Sumer and the First Cities of the Ancient Near East

  The earliest of the city states of the ancient Near East appeared at the southern end of the Mesopotamian plain, the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what is now Iraq. It was here that the civilization known as Sumer emerged in its earliest form in the fifth millennium. At first sight, the plain did not appear to be a likely home for a civilization. There were few natural resources, no timber, stone, or metals. Rainfall was limited, and what water there was rushed across the plain in the annual flood of melted snow. As the plain fell only 20 meters in 500 kilometers, the beds of the rivers shifted constantly. It was this that made the organization of irrigation, particularly the building of canals to channel and preserve the water, essential. Once this was done and the silt carried down by the rivers was planted, the rewards were rich: four to five times what rain-fed earth would produce. It was these conditions that allowed an elite to emerge, probably as an organizing class, and to sustain itself through the control of surplus crops.

  It is difficult to isolate the factors that led to the next development—the emergence of urban settlements. The earliest, that of Eridu, about 4500 B.C.E., and Uruk, a thousand years later, center on impressive temple complexes built of mud brick. In some way, the elite had associated themselves with the power of the gods. Uruk, for instance, had two patron gods—Anu, the god of the sky and sovereign of all other gods, and Inanna, a goddess of love and war—and there were others, patrons of different cities. Human beings were at their mercy. The biblical story of the Flood may originate in Sumer. In the earliest version, the gods destroy the human race because its clamor had been so disturbing to them.

  It used to be believed that before 3000 B.C.E. the political and economic life of the cities was centered on their temples, but it now seems probable that the cities had secular rulers from earliest times. Within the city lived administrators, craftspeople, and merchants. (Trading was important, as so many raw materials, the semiprecious stones for the decoration of the temples, timbers for roofs, and all metals, had to be imported.) An increasingly sophisticated system of administration led in about 3300 B.C.E. to the appearance of writing. The earliest script was based on logograms, with a symbol being used to express a whole word. The logograms were incised on damp clay tablets with a stylus with a wedge shape at its end. (The Romans called the shape cuneus and this gives the script its name of cuneiform.) Two thousand logograms have been recorded from these early centuries of writing. A more economical approach was to use a sign to express not a whole word but a single syllable. (To take an example: the Sumerian word for " head” was “sag.” Whenever a word including a syllable in which the sound “sag” was to be written, the sign for “sag" could be used to express that syllable with the remaining syllables of the word expressed by other signs.) By 2300 B.C.E. the number of signs required had been reduced to 600, and the range of words that could be expressed had widened. Texts dealing with economic matters predominated, as they always had done; but at this point works of theology, literature, history, and law also appeared.

  Other innovations of the late fourth millennium include the wheel, probably developed first as a more efficient way of making pottery and then transferred to transport. A tablet engraved about 3000 B.C.E. provides the earliest known example from Sumer, a roofed boxlike sledge mounted on four solid wheels. A major development was the discovery, again about 3000 B.C.E., that if copper, which had been known in Mesopotamia since about 3500 B.C.E., was mixed with tin, a much harder metal, bronze, would result. Although copper and stone tools continued to be used, bronze was far more successful in creating sharp edges that could be used as anything from saws and scythes to weapons. The period from 3000 to 1000 B.C.E., when the use of bronze became widespread, is normally referred to as the Bronze Age.

  第三篇

  题材划分: 生物类文章

  主要内容:

  考古学家如何区分家养的和野生的动植物,先说有好多方法可以区分,但有的时候很难分,他们的特征可能一样又列举了一堆区分方法,每个都有点问题,后来说一般都运用floated的技术使有机物和别的分离,这样就可以分析植物家养与否。但是动物没有这么好区分,因为很多特征在家养的和野生的动物身上都可以提现,所以有另外的办法,就是看人类的捕杀数量和对象,在某个时间,人类杀成年的动物数量很多,证明人类那时就有选择性的捕猎,但是这个办法需要好好考虑,因为有很多因素,比如雌雄和动物数量波动很大等三个原因。还有一个发现就是一些属于XX时代的磨光的石头,然后又说农业的发展让他们建了一堆谷仓啊,容器的来储藏粮食,所以不太可能游牧。这些都证明了在向驯养的转变,最后一段说不能只根据clay pot来证明驯养的举日本的例子。

  解析:

  就整体的文章结构来看,考生可通过阅读对应的TS句来了解段落的大意,相对比较容易把握,题目难度也不高,基本上都可以从原文中找到对应的信息点。

  相似TPO练习推荐:

  TPO5—Minerals and Plants

  TPO28-Buck Rubs and Buck Scrapes

  相关文章:

  Minerals and Plants

  Research has shown that certain minerals are required by plants for normal growth and development. The soil is the source of these minerals, which are absorbed by the plant with the water from the soil. Even nitrogen, which is a gas in its elemental state, is normally absorbed from the soil as nitrate ions. Some soils are notoriously deficient in micro nutrients and are therefore unable to support most plant life. So-called serpentine soils, for example, are deficient in calcium, and only plants able to tolerate low levels of this mineral can survive. In modern agriculture, mineral depletion of soils is a major concern, since harvesting crops interrupts the recycling of nutrients back to the soil.

  Mineral deficiencies can often be detected by specific symptoms such as chlorosis (loss of chlorophyll resulting in yellow or white leaf tissue), necrosis (isolated dead patches), anthocyanin formation (development of deep red pigmentation of leaves or stem), stunted growth, and development of woody tissue in an herbaceous plant. Soils are most commonly deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen-deficient plants exhibit many of the symptoms just described. Leaves develop chlorosis; stems are short and slender, and anthocyanin discoloration occurs on stems, petioles, and lower leaf surfaces. Phosphorus-deficient plants are often stunted, with leaves turning a characteristic dark green, often with the accumulation of anthocyanin. Typically, older leaves are affected first as the phosphorus is mobilized to young growing tissue. Iron deficiency is characterized by chlorosis between veins in young leaves.

  Much of the research on nutrient deficiencies is based on growing plants hydroponically, that is, in soilless liquid nutrient solutions. This technique allows researchers to create solutions that selectively omit certain nutrients and then observe the resulting effects on the plants. Hydroponics has applications beyond basic research, since it facilitates the growing of greenhouse vegetables during winter. Aeroponics, a technique in which plants are suspended and the roots misted with a nutrient solution, is another method for growing plants without soil.

  While mineral deficiencies can limit the growth of plants, an overabundance of certain minerals can be toxic and can also limit growth. Saline soils, which have high concentrations of sodium chloride and other salts, limit plant growth, and research continues to focus on developing salt-tolerant varieties of agricultural crops. Research has focused on the toxic effects of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and aluminum; however, even copper and zinc, which are essential elements, can become toxic in high concentrations. Although most plants cannot survive in these soils, certain plants have the ability to tolerate high levels of these minerals.

  Scientists have known for some time that certain plants, called hyperaccumulators, can concentrate minerals at levels a hundredfold or greater than normal. A survey of known hyperaccumulators identified that 75 percent of them amassed nickel, cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium are other minerals of choice. Hyperaccumulators run the entire range of the plant world. They may be herbs, shrubs, or trees. Many members of the mustard family, spurge family, legume family, and grass family are top hyperaccumulators. Many are found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where accumulation of high concentrations of metals may afford some protection against plant-eating insects and microbial pathogens.

  Only recently have investigators considered using these plants to clean up soil and waste sites that have been contaminated by toxic levels of heavy metals–an environmentally friendly approach known as phytoremediation. This scenario begins with the planting of hyperaccumulating species in the target area, such as an abandoned mine or an irrigation pond contaminated by runoff. Toxic minerals would first be absorbed by roots but later relocated to the stem and leaves. A harvest of the shoots would remove the toxic compounds off site to be burned or composted to recover the metal for industrial uses. After several years of cultivation and harvest, the site would be restored at a cost much lower than the price of excavation and reburial, the standard practice for remediation of contaminated soils. For examples, in field trials, the plant alpine pennycress removed zinc and cadmium from soils near a zinc smelter, and Indian mustard, native to Pakistan and India, has been effective in reducing levels of selenium salts by 50 percent in contaminated soils.

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