The year 1850 may be considered the beginning of a new epoch in America art, with respect to the development of watercolor painting. In December of that year, a group of thirty artists gathered in the studio of John Falconer in New York City and drafted both a constitution and bylaws, establishing The Society for the Promotion of Painting in Water Color. In addition to securing an exhibition space in the Library Society building in lower Manhattan, the society founded a small school for the instruction of watercolor painting. Periodic exhibitions of the members' paintings also included works by noted English artists of the day, borrowed from embryonic private collections in the city. The society's activities also included organized sketching excursions along the Hudson River. Its major public exposure came in 1853, when the society presented works by its members in the "Industry of All Nations" section of the Crystal Palace Exposition in New York.
The society did not prosper, however, and by the time of its annual meeting in 1854 membership had fallen to twenty-one. The group gave up its quarters in the Library Society building and returned to Falconer's studio, where it broke up amid dissension. No further attempt to formally organize the growing numbers of watercolor painters in New York City was made for more than a decade. During that decade, though, Henry Warren's Painting in Water Color was published in New York City in 1856 — the book was a considerable improvement over the only other manual of instruction existing at the time, Elements of Graphic Art, by Archibald Roberson, published in 1802 and by the 1850's long out of print.
In 1866 the National Academy of Design was host to an exhibition of watercolor painting in its elaborate neo-Venetian Gothic building on Twenty-Third Street in New York City. The exhibit was sponsored by an independent group called The Artists Fund Society. Within a few months of this event, forty-two prominent artists living in and near New York City founded The American Society of Painters in Water Colors.
1. This passage is mainly about
(A) the most influential watercolor painters in the mid-1800's
(B) efforts to organize watercolor painters in New York City during the mid-1800's
(C) a famous exhibition of watercolor paintings in New York City in the mid-1800's
(D) styles of watercolor painting in New York City during the mid-1800's
2. The year 1850 was significant in the history of watercolor painting mainly because
(A) a group of artists established a watercolor painting society
(B) watercolor painting was first introduced to New York City
(C) John Falconer established his studio for watercolor painters
(D) The first book on watercolor painting was published
3. The word "securingV得到，获得" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
4. All of the following can be inferred about the Society for the promotion of Painting in Watercolor EXCEPT:
(A) The society exhibited paintings in lower Manhattan.
(B) Instruction in watercolor painting was offered by members of the society
(C) The society exhibited only the paintings of its members.
(D) Scenes of the Hudson River appeared often in the work of society members.
5. The exhibition at the Crystal Palace of the works of the Society for the Promotion of Painting in Watercolor was significant for which of the following reasons?
(A) It resulted in a dramatic increase in the popularity of painting with watercolor.
(B) It was the first time an exhibition was funded by a private source.
(C) It was the first important exhibition of the society's work.
(D) It resulted in a large increase in the membership of the society.
6. The word "it" in line 15 refers to
7. Which of the following is true of watercolor painters in New York City in the late 1850's?
(A) They increased in number despite a lack of formal organization.
(B) They were unable to exhibit their paintings because of the lack of exhibition space.
(C) The Artists Fund Society helped them to form The American Society of Painters in Water Colors.
(D) They formed a new society because they were not allowed to join groups run by other kinds of artists.
8. Henry Warren's Painting in Water Color was important to artists because it
(A) received an important reward
(B) was the only textbook published that taught painting
(C) was much better than an earlier published fundamental of instruction
(D) attracted the interest of art collectors
9. The word "considerable" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
10. The year 1866 was significant for watercolor painting for which of the following reasons?
(A) Elements of Graphic Art was republished.
(B) Private collections of watercolors were first publicly exhibited.
(C) The neo-Venetian Gothic building on Twenty-Third Street in New York City was built.
(D) The National Academy of Design held an exhibition of watercolor paintings.
11. The word "prominent" in line 25 is closest in meaning to
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