1. a couple of 两三个，几个
Although he thought of the key idea in 1951， the first maser was not completed until a couple of years later.
2. account for 解释
Variations of clay composition and the temperatures at which they are fired account for the differences in texture and appearance.
3. adapt to 使适应于
They have been able to adapt to ecological changes.
4. adorn with sth 用…装饰
Some pots were adorned with incised or stamped decorations.
5. appeal to 吸引
Publishing literature consisting of exciting stories that would appeal to both children and adults
6. apply to 适用于
Ethological theory began to be applied to research on children in the 1960’s.
7. at best 充其量，最多
Hunting is at best a precarious way of procuring food， even when the diet is supplemented with seeds and fruits.
8. at intervals 相隔一定距离
However， at intervals of 10 to 100 years， these glaciers move forward up to 100 times faster than usual.
9. at the expense of sth 在损害…的情况下
A multitude of microorganisms make their livings directly at the expense of other creatures.
10. at the height of sth 在…最鼎盛时期
The violin had reached the height of its popularity by the middle of the eighteenth century.
11. back and forth 来回地
They then spiral back and forth between the Earth＇s magnetic poles very rapidly.
12. be absent from 缺席，不在
Lacking the right to vote and absent from the seats of power， women line were not considered an important force in history.
13. be capable of 能…的
Many animals are capable of using objects in the natural environment as rudimentary tools.
14. be characterized by 以…为特征
The nervous system of vertebrates is characterized by a hollow， dorsal nerve cord that ends in the head region as an enlargement， the brain.
15. be composed of 由…组成
Ocean life is primarily composed of plants.
16. be concerned with 与某事物有关
Ethnology is concerned with the study of adaptive， or survival， value of behavior and its Evolutionary history.
17. be distinct from 与…不同
Jupiter and the other giant planets are of a low-density type quite distinct from the terrestrial planets
18. be essential to 对…不可缺少
Public performance is essential to verbal art.
19. be exposed to 使接触，使遭受
Body contact reduces the surface area exposed to the cold air.
20. be far from 离…很远，根本不是
But far from being random， molt is controlled by strong evolutionary forces that have established an optimal time and duration.
21. be hostile to 极不友好的，极厌恶的
Ocean bottom is a hostile environment to humans
22. be regarded as 被认为是
Humanity＇s primal efforts to systematize the concepts of size， shapes， and number are usually regarded as the earliest mathematics.
23. be related to 与…有关的，相联系的
Why is dancing closely related to popular music in the United States？
24. be responsible for 对…负责
In fact， nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen to helium are responsible for most of the energy that stars produce.
25. be sensitive to 对…敏感的
Ants can be extremely sensitive to these signals.
26. be subjected to 经历，遭受
Oil is formed when organic material trapped in sediments is slowly buried and subjected to increased temperatures and pressures， transforming it into petroleum.
27. be superior to 优越于
Natural vitamins are superior to synthetic ones
28. be traced to 找出根源
The ancestry of the piano can be traced to the early keyboard instruments of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
29. be/become aware of 意识到，认识到
People became aware of the new service by word of mouth or newspaper advertisements.
30. be/become/get accustomed to 习惯于
In the harsh environment of northern Europe， Scandinavian women had been accustomed to practicing forms of shifting cultivation， and they immediately understood Native American horticulture.
31. be/become/get involved in 与…有关联的
Two distinct processes are involved in molting.
32. benefit from 从…中受益
Students benefit from schools， which require long hours and homework.
33. break down 分解
All of these forces slowly break down the Earth＇s exposed rocky crust into smaller and smaller pieces that eventually become clay.
34. by far 到目前为止
Marine sediment is by far the most important environment for the preservation of fossils.
35. by means of 通过，凭借
The topic of the passage is developed primarily by means of Adividing the discussion into two major areas.
36. by virtue of 由于
Many are uninhabitable， by virtue of their small size and particular characteristics
37. confine to 限制在一定范围之内
The delivery service was at first confined to cities.
38. conform to 符合
Parks should be designed to conform to the topography of the area
39. contribute to 有贡献，有助于
Transportation contributed to the development and maintenance of trade.
40. cope with 对付
Under certain circumstance the human body must cope with gases at greater-than-normal atmospheric pressure.
41. date back to 始于
In the United States， rent controls date back to at least World War II.
42. depend on 依靠
The gulls depend on the falcons for protection.
43. deprive sb/sth of sth 剥夺..某事物
Plant stems die when deprived of water.
44. derive from 获得，起源于
Babies obviously derive pleasure from sound input.
45. due to 由于，因为
Due to their dense structure， iron meteorites have the best chance of surviving an impact， and most are found by farmers plowing their fields.
46. evolve from/out of 从...进化来，从…发展来
The one most widely accepted today is based on the assumption that drama evolved from ritual.
47. extract from 提取
It turns out that some fossils can be extracted from these sediments by putting the rocks in an acid bath.
48. feed on 以…为食物
Predators are animals that capture and feed on other animals.
49. focus on 集中（注意力）于
They focus on the meaning of their parents＇ words.
50. get rid of 处理掉
Atoms or molecules get rid of excess energy by themselves， without any outside intervention.
51. give access to 向…开放
To connect the pueblos and to give access to the surrounding tableland， the architects laid out a system of public roads with stone staircases for ascending cliff faces.
52. give birth to 使诞生，引起
Most insects lay eggs， but some give birth to live young.
53. give off 发散，发出
If Jupiter were larger， it would give off much less heat.
54. give rise to 引起，导致
The musical Renaissance was too short to give rise to a new musical style.
55. go beyond 超过，越过
An interviewer can go beyond written questions and probe for a subject＇s underlying feelings and reasons.
56. go out of business 停业，关门
The shop went out of business.
57. have nothing to do with 与…无关
A species’ survival may have nothing to do with its ability or inability to adapt.
58. impart to 传授给
They functioned as sanctuaries where the elders impart tribal lore to the younger generation.
59. impose on 强加于
New regulations were imposed on nontraditional education.
60. in common 共同
No two comets ever look identical， but they have basic features in common.
61. in favor of 赞同，支持
The artist was in favor of a traditional style of painting.
62. in quantity 大量，大批
There were also a number of poor-quality figurines and painted pots produced in quantity by easy， inexpensive means.
63. in season 当季
Before the mid-nineteenth century， people in the United States ate most foods only in season.
64. in spite of 尽管，任凭
In spite of problems with their condition， restoration， and preservation many panel paintings have survived.
65. in the absence of 在缺乏…的情况下
The concentrations at which the adverse effects appear will be greater than the concentrations that the pollutants would have in the absence of human activities.
66. in view of 由于
In view of the rate at which the radio sources emit energy， they should disappear in a few million years.
67. instead of 代替
Instead of working with light， however， he worked with microwaves.
68. invest in 投资
He started to invest in the town’s cultural development.
69. lead to 导致，引起
In fact， there is wide agreement that it is the rate of change humans are inflicting， even more than the changes themselves that will lead to biological devastation.
70. leave out 排除
Explanations of animal behavior that leave out any sort of consciousness at all and ascribe actions entirely to instinct leave many questions unanswered.
71. off the mark 不正确
This analogy is not far off the mark.
72. on behalf of 代表
Satire serves to prod people into an awareness of truth though rarely to any action on behalf of truth.
73. on the basis of 在…的基础上
Antoine Lavisher， on the basis of careful experimentation， was led to propose a different theory of burning
74. owing to 由于，因为
Marine sediment is by far the most important environment for the preservation of fossils， owing to the incredible richness of marine life.
75. perceive sth as sth 认为
Although art deco in its many forms was largely perceived as thoroughly modern， it was strongly influenced by the decorative arts movements that immediately preceded it.
76. pick up 学会
Adults make it as easy as they can for babies to pick up a language by exaggerating such cues.
77. put off 推迟
Some tasks could not be done in the winter， other had to be put off during harvest time.
78. regardless of 不顾
Ultimately， literature is aesthetically valued， regardless of language， culture， or mode of presentation.
79. result from 因..而产生
Most functions result from the needs of the local area and of the surrounding.
80. result in 结果，导致
The upward movement of fieldstones should result in pure soil.
81. set about 开始，动手
African American artists of this period set about creating a new portrayal of themselves and their lives in the United States.
82. set aside 留下将来用
Certain parts of town were restricted to residential use， while others were set aside for industrial or commercial development.
83. so far 到目前为止
The Paris Exhibition of 1889 included both the widest span and the greatest height achieved so far.
84. sort out 把…分类
Clay particles are sorted out by size and weight.
85. spring up 涌现
In the early colonial day in North America， small cities sprang up along the Atlantic Coastline.
86. stem from 起源于
It can be argued that much of New York City’s importance stems from its early and continuing advantage of situation.
87. stretch out 伸展，伸出
The residues from these explosions left huge black marks on the face of Jupiter， some of which have stretched out to form dark ribbons.
88. strive for 为…而奋斗
As they began to strive for social and cultural independence，their attitudes toward themselves changed.
89. take account of sth./take sth into account 考虑到
Artists are recognizing the distinction between public and private spaces， and taking that into account when executing their public commissions.
90. take advantage of 利用
Many families could take advantage of previously unavailable fruits， vegetables， and dairy products to achieve more varied fare.
91. thanks to 由于
kiwis smell out earthworms thanks to nostrils located at the tip of their beaks.
92. to some extent 某种程度上
Their attitudes toward themselves changed， and， to some extent， other segments of American society began to change their attitudes toward them.
93. turn out 结果是，证明是
Some potash was exported from Maine and New Hampshire in the seventeenth century， but the market turned out to be mainly domestic.
94. usher in 宣告…的来临
Autumn could be ushered in by severe frost.
95. wear away 磨损
Natural forces wear away the Earth＇s crust
96. wipe out 消灭，肃清
Entire crops can be wiped out by fungal attacks both before and after harvesting.
97. with respect to 在…方面
The year 1850 may be considered the beginning of a new epoch in America art， with respect to the development of watercolor painting.
98. with the advent of 随着…的出现
With the advent of high-resolution radio interferometers during the late 1970＇s， part of the answer became clear.
99. with the aid of 借助于
It is now taught with the aid of computers.
100. with the exception of 除..以外
With the exception of printing patterns directly onto the cloth， whether by block， roller， or screen， all of these are based on dyeing； that is， the immersion of the fabric in a dye bath.