Agriculture andanimal domestication
The firstevidence for the existence of agricultural practices in South America datesback to about 9000 BC, when squashes,chillies and beans began tobe cultivated for food in the highlands of the Amazon Basin. Potteryevidence further suggests thatmanioc, which remains a staple food today,was being cultivated as early as 2000 BC.
By 2000 BC,many agrarian villagecommunities had been settled throughout the Andes and the surrounding religiousregions. Fishing became a widespread practice along the coast, helping establishfish as a primary source of food. Irrigation systems were also developed atthis time, which aided in the rise of an agrarian society.
South Americancultures began domesticating llamas, vicuñas, guanacos, and alpacas in thehighlands of the Andes circa 3500 BC. Besides their use as sources of meat andwool, these animals were used for transportation of goods
有个策略叫做seller market ,价格的高低取决于需求量 讲一个民族 他们有一种otter sea身上的某种东西 亚洲很多人喜欢 后来价格越来越高 原因是因为他们采用了一些策略 一是竞价 价高者得之 而是拖延谈判时间 导致买者迫不及待 出高价Sea otter
Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) live along the Pacific coast ofNorth America. Their historic range included shallow waters of the Bering Strait and Kamchatka, and as far south as Japan. Sea otters have about26,000 to 165,000 strands of hair per squarecentimetre of skin, a rich fur for whichhumans hunted them almost to extinction. By the time the 1911 Fur Seal Treaty gave themprotection, so few sea otters remained that the fur trade had becomeunprofitable. Sea otters eat shellfish and other invertebrates (especially clams, abalone, and sea urchins), frequentlyusing rocks as crude tools to smash open shells. They grow to 1.0 to 1.5 metres (2.5 to5 ft) in length and weigh 30 kilograms. Although once near extinction,they have begun to spread again, from remnant populations in California and Alaska.
Unlike most marine mammals (such as seals or whales), sea ottersdo not have a layer of insulating blubber. As withother species of otter, they rely on a layer of air trapped in their fur, whichthey keep topped up by blowing into the fur from their mouths. They spend mostof their time in the water, whereas other otters spend much of their time onland.
1.教授说要去看一个博物馆说博物馆重新摆放了一下 空间更大了更容易观看了 ，提到了一个特殊的值得观看的物品，是古罗马的，但风格受到希腊的影响，不记得了后面了
2.一个学生 要搞一个watching Bird event ， 但是学校不允许，这个学生就说要搞个俱乐部，学校说只能提供网站，没有固定教室开会，但是可以提供临时教室供occasional case，然后学校里有个教授搞的关于鸟的研究，说学生可以和教授交流一下
Task 1: Are the livingstandards of people today better than the past?
Task 2: Do you agree ordisagree with the following statement: Internet plays an important role in yourlife. Use specific examples and details to support your answer.
一个学校的政策 要求不要在学生活动中心的入口帖广告影响外观 可以将广告贴在食堂外面
学生不同意 1) 学生活动中心本来就很boring 外面有些广告会看上去更漂亮
2) 根本没什么人在食堂吃饭 帖了广告也看不到
Task 4 动物是怎么警告捕食者的通过显目的颜色或者释放臭气
一个学生明天有电影课还有讨论 但是他明天侄子要来两个方案 一，由另外一个女生代替他去接待侄子 但是缺点是侄子比较害羞二，先由自己带侄子吃饭 晚一点再看电影缺点就是不能参加讨论
Woman: Hey! How are youdoing?
Man: Terrible.It is a time conflict. You see tomorrow I have a film appreciation seminar thatI have to attend, while my nephew is coming for a visit at the same day. I haveto pick him up at the airport.
Woman: Couldn’t you just skip theclass once a time?
Man: Not this time. We’ll havea discussion after watching part.
Woman: In this way, whydon’t you find someone else to pick up your nephew.
Man: Thatwouldn’t work because my nephew is a shy boy.
Woman: Then how aboutyou take your nephew to grab a bite first. And go to the class after that. Ibelieve that wouldn’t take a long time.
Man: Yeah. But in this case Iwill miss the discussion.
The speakersdiscuss two possible solutions to the woman’s problem. Describe the problem andthe two solutions. Then explain what you think the woman should do and why.
阅读部分消除CO2的三个方法 1，种树 2，把二氧化碳倒入海底 3把二氧化碳和地壳中的金属氧化物进行反应
教授反驳观点：1 树死后会将二氧化碳释放出来 2,海底并不稳定，如果有地震或者火山爆发就会把二氧化碳释放出来
3 这种化学反应需要极高的温度 而温度的来源是通过燃烧 fossil fuel 因此又产生二氧化碳
People care more about public recognition than about money.Even if no more money is given, public recognition can still make people workharder