Mirror Self – recognition
The mirror test, sometimes called the marktest or the mirror self-recognition test (MSR), is a behavioral techniquedeveloped in 1970 by psychologist Gordon Gallup Jr. to determine whether anon-human animal possesses the ability of self-recognition. Similarobservations are used as an indicator of entrance to the mirror stage by humanchildren in developmental psychology.
A large number of studies have investigatedthe occurrence of mirror-induced, self-directed behavior in animals of a greatrange of species. Most animals given a mirror respond with social behavior,such as aggressive displays, and continue to do so during repeated testing.However, only a small number of species have passed the Mirror Test. It shouldalso be noted that even in the chimpanzee, the species most studied and withthe most convincing findings, clear-cut evidence of self-recognition is notobtained in all individuals tested. Prevalence is about 75% in young adults andconsiderably less in young and aging individuals.
1. 镜子测试是 1970 年由心理学家戈登发明的用来测试非人的动物是否具有自我识别的能力的测试。
Test Point – TPO28L2
As you know, researchers have long beeninterested in discovering exactly how intelligent animals are. Today we aregoing to talk about a particular cognitive ability some animals seem tohave—the ability to recognize themselves in a mirror.
Oh. I’ve heard about that. Chimpanzees haveit.
Right. Chimpanzees and other primates,chimps, gorillas, orangutans, and of course, humans. But it’s also been foundin elephants and bottlenose dolphins, a bit of a surprise. It’s very rare. Mostanimals don’t have it. And it’s called mirror self-recognition, or MSR.
Well, how does it work? I mean, how doresearchers know if elephants or chimps recognize themselves?
Researchers give them a mirror mark test.In the mirror mark test, researchers put a mark on the animal where the animalis unable to see it or smell it or feel it, like on the side of their head,without looking in the mirror.
Now, typically, when animals first seethemselves in the mirror, they think they are seeing another animal. Often theywill look for this animal behind the mirror. They may even exhibit aggressivebehavior.
But some animals, after this period ofexploration, exhibit behaviors that show they know they are looking atthemselves. For instance, elephants will touch the mark on their heads withtheir trunks.
Now, it’s been assumed that primates andsome other mammals stood alone at the top of the hierarchy of cognitiveevolution. But recently, birds have been found to possess some of the samecognitive abilities! In particular, researchers have discovered these abilitiesin corvids, birds of the corvidae family.