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托福阅读考试背景知识:狮子测试

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2017-09-21 17:10

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  托福阅读的考试想拿高分,平时的积累很重要,出国留学网托福栏目小编整理了相关的资料,希望可以帮助考生度过考试的难关,下面是小编搜集的托福阅读背景知识:狮子测试的相关资讯,欢迎参考!

  托福阅读背景知识:狮子测试

  Itroduction:

  Mirror Self – recognition

  登盖洛普基于这些观察制定了一个测试,试图通过判断动物是否能够辨别出它在镜中的像是它自己而判断其自我认知能力。在实验中,实验者在动物身上标上两个无味的颜料斑点。测试斑点被置于动物身体上在镜中可见的部分,而对照斑点则放在动物身体上可触及但不可见的地方。科学家们观察到动物的许多反应可以显示它意识到测试斑点是在自己身上,而同时忽视对照斑点。这些反应包括转身和调整身体姿势以便更好地观察镜中的标记,或在看镜子的时候用肢体试图触碰自己身上的标记。

  Background information:

  The mirror test, sometimes called the marktest or the mirror self-recognition test (MSR), is a behavioral techniquedeveloped in 1970 by psychologist Gordon Gallup Jr. to determine whether anon-human animal possesses the ability of self-recognition. Similarobservations are used as an indicator of entrance to the mirror stage by humanchildren in developmental psychology.

  A large number of studies have investigatedthe occurrence of mirror-induced, self-directed behavior in animals of a greatrange of species. Most animals given a mirror respond with social behavior,such as aggressive displays, and continue to do so during repeated testing.However, only a small number of species have passed the Mirror Test. It shouldalso be noted that even in the chimpanzee, the species most studied and withthe most convincing findings, clear-cut evidence of self-recognition is notobtained in all individuals tested. Prevalence is about 75% in young adults andconsiderably less in young and aging individuals.

  Knowledge points:

  1. 镜子测试是 1970 年由心理学家戈登发明的用来测试非人的动物是否具有自我识别的能力的测试。

  2. 大多数动物在镜子测试中出现社会行为,比如一些有侵略性的动作,并且在测试中重复这些行为。然而,只有一小类动物通过了镜子测试。需要注意的是,即使在黑猩猩这个物种之中,自我识别的能力不是存在在每一个个体身上。

  Vocabulary prediction:

  Chimpanzee 黑猩猩

  Primate 灵长目动物

  Gorilla 大猩猩

  Corvidae 鸦科

  Empathy 同感,共鸣

  Magpie 喜鹊

  Test Point – TPO28L2

  Professor

  As you know, researchers have long beeninterested in discovering exactly how intelligent animals are. Today we aregoing to talk about a particular cognitive ability some animals seem tohave—the ability to recognize themselves in a mirror.

  Student

  Oh. I’ve heard about that. Chimpanzees haveit.

  Professor

  Right. Chimpanzees and other primates,chimps, gorillas, orangutans, and of course, humans. But it’s also been foundin elephants and bottlenose dolphins, a bit of a surprise. It’s very rare. Mostanimals don’t have it. And it’s called mirror self-recognition, or MSR.

  Student

  Well, how does it work? I mean, how doresearchers know if elephants or chimps recognize themselves?

  Professor

  Researchers give them a mirror mark test.In the mirror mark test, researchers put a mark on the animal where the animalis unable to see it or smell it or feel it, like on the side of their head,without looking in the mirror.

  Now, typically, when animals first seethemselves in the mirror, they think they are seeing another animal. Often theywill look for this animal behind the mirror. They may even exhibit aggressivebehavior.

  But some animals, after this period ofexploration, exhibit behaviors that show they know they are looking atthemselves. For instance, elephants will touch the mark on their heads withtheir trunks.

  Now, it’s been assumed that primates andsome other mammals stood alone at the top of the hierarchy of cognitiveevolution. But recently, birds have been found to possess some of the samecognitive abilities! In particular, researchers have discovered these abilitiesin corvids, birds of the corvidae family.

  Knowledge points

  1.在镜子记号测试中,测试人员在动物看不到,闻不到也感觉不到的地方做标记,比如说在它们的头上,不通过镜子它们是看不到这个记号的。

  2.一般情况下,当动物第一次看到镜子时,他们认为是看到另一个动物。有的时候它们甚至会用侵略性的行为。

  3.但是一些动物,经过一段时间的探索之后,它们知道它们是看到了自己。比如,大象会用鼻子去碰触它们头上的记号。

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