留学社区

目录

托福听力背景常识:古埃及历法

字典 |

2017-09-21 17:28

|

【 liuxue86.com - 托福听力 】

  托福听力的背景知识很多,出国留学网托福栏目小编整理了相关的资料,希望可以帮助考生度过考试的难关,下面是小编搜集的托福听力背景知识:古埃及历法的相关资讯,欢迎参考!

  托福听力背景知识:古埃及历法

  Introduction:

  Ancient Egyptian Calendar

  古埃及的历法包括太阴历和准太阴历等,大体上将每年分为 3 个季节:泛滥季、长出五谷季、收割季。同时以 365 天为 1 年,1 年 12 个月,每月 30 天,年终另外再加 5 天作为节日。比现行的阳历只少 1/4 天。古罗马的儒略历就是在此基础上修订的。

  Background information:

  The ancient Egyptian calendar was inventedover 5000 years ago. It was originally based on the lunar cycle of 12 months,which the Egyptians grouped into three seasons of four months each to coincidewith the rise and fall of the waters of the Nile. However, although theflooding of the Nile began each year around the end of June, the floodsoccurred within a range of 80 days and were not accurate enough to base acalendar on. So the ancient Egyptians, having noticed that the Nile’s risingcoincided with the heliacal rising of the star Sirius, the brightest star inthe sky, based the year on the cycle of its reappearance.

  The beginning of the year, also called"the opening of the year", was determined by the appearance of thestar Sirius, in the constellation of Canis Major, which occurred around June21st. However, because the rising of Sirius is a stellar event, which means itoccurs every 365 1⁄4 days, the rising of the star did not precisely match thecalendar, which was based on the lunar cycle and so had an average of 354days--11 days less than a solar year. This meant that the rising of the starwould very quickly be out of sync with the calendar. To correct this, theEgyptians introduced an extra month to create a “Great Year” of 384 days every2 or 3 years.

  However, because this calendar was eithernot accurate enough, too complicated, or unsuitable for economic andadministrative purposes, a standard calendar was introduced in the Old Kingdomto run along side the lunar calendar. This calendar, which probably resultedfrom counting the number of days between successive risings of Sirius.

  The new “Civic” calendar year was dividedinto 3 seasons, each with four months. Each of the 12 months had 30 daysdivided into 3 decades (weeks) of 10 days each for a total of 360 days. Theseasons of the Egyptian calendar were believed to have been chosen tocorrespond to the cycles of the Nile which was central to the life of theEgyptians. Because they lived an agrarian lifestyle the seasons were namedafter the significant events for farming. Translated to our Gregorian calendar,the dates of these seasons seem to vary considerably as do the names of boththe seasons and the months. For example, the season of Akhet, is considered byone reference to occur between August 29th and December 26th, whereas anotherreferences place it between June 21st and October 21st .

  Knowledge points:

  1. 古埃及历法在大约 5000 年前被发明。它基于月运周期的 12 个月份。

  2. 埃及人把每四个月分为三个季节,每四个月结合尼罗河的上升和下降。

  3. 古埃及人注意到尼罗河的上升和天狼星的运动契合。

  4. 新的 civic 日历和尼罗河的周期吻合。

  Vocabulary prediction:

  Inundation 淹没,洪水

  Recede 后退,减弱

  Subsidence 沉淀

  heliacal rising 偕日出

  Test Point – TPO17L3

  Professor

  Ok, so one of the challenges that facedancient civilizations like Egypt was timekeeping, calendars. When you have togrow food for whole cities of people, it is important to plant your crops atthe right time. And when you start having financial obligations, rents, taxes,you have to keep track of how often you pay.

  So today we will look at how the Egyptiansaddressed these problems. In fact, they ended up using two calendars, one tokeep track of the natural world, or their agriculture concerns, and another onethat was used to keep track of the business functions of the Kingdom. So let’stake a look at the hows and whys of one ancient Egyptian calendar system,starting with the Nile River.

  Why the Nile? Well, there’s no other way toput it. Egyptian life basically revolved around the mysterious rise and fall ofthe river. The success of their agriculture system depended upon them knowingwhen the river would change. So, naturally, their first calendar was divided upinto three seasons, each based on the river’s changes: inundation, subsidenceand harvest.

  The first season was the flooding, orinundation, when the Nile valley was essentially submerged in water for a fewmonths or so. And afterwards during the season of subsidence, the water wouldsubside, or recede, revealing a new layer of fertile black silt and allowingfor the planting of various crops. And finally the time of the year wouldarrive when the valley would produce crops, such as wheat, barley, fruit, allready to harvest. Ok, so it was important to the ancient Egyptians to know whentheir Nile based seasons would occur, their way of life depended upon it. Now,the way they used to count time was based on the phases of the moon, which,regularly and predictably, goes through a cycle, starting with a new moon, thento a full moon, and back again to the new moon. Now this cycle was then used todetermine the length of their month. So, um, one lunar cycle was one Egyptianmonth, and about four of the months would constitute a season. Now, 12 of thesemonths was an approximately 354-day year. So they had a 354-day agriculturalcalendar that was designed to help them determine when the Nile would inundatethe land.

  Knowledge points

  1.日历表对古埃及人种植植物,经济活动比如收租金,收税来说是十分重要的。

  2.埃及人有两个日历,一个用于农业,一个用于商业。

  3.埃及人发明的第一个日历是根据尼罗河的涨潮,退潮以及收割。

  4.还有一种统计方法是基于月相,从新月到满月一个循环。这个循坏用来决定每个月的长度。因此一个月运周期就是埃及的一个月,大约四个月组成一季。

  托福考试栏目为您推荐:

  2017年托福考试报名时间

  2017托福听力考试词汇汇总

  托福作文考试零基础备考常识汇总

  2017年9月托福高频词汇表

  2017年托福考试时间安排表

  2017年托福考试成绩查询入口

  托福听力 | 托福词汇 | 托福阅读 | 托福口语 | 托福真题

  想了解更多托福听力网的资讯,请访问: 托福听力

本文来源:https://toefl.liuxue86.com/t/3400200.html
延伸阅读
对于托福听力,同学们有哪些想法呢?接下来就和出国留学网一起来看看托福听力有哪些正确的练习方式?欢迎阅读。1、概括听力练习这个练习方法不需要考生听懂听力材料的每一个细节,但要抓住说话
2018-07-19
2018年托福听力主旨题怎么做?这是很多同学的疑惑,那么接下来就和出国留学网一起来看看吧,希望对于大家有帮助。策略一记录关键词引导的信息关键词表示了和听力核心内容密不可分的单词或者
2018-07-19
精听是托福听力备考一种非常有效的方法,那么接下来就和出国留学网一起来看看如何进行有效的精听?希望对于大家有帮助。托福听力精听方法一:总听全文为什么叫总听呢?即别陷进文章内容的细节。
2018-07-19
对于很多托福考试的同学来说,听力是很多同学需要提高的一个方面,那么接下来就和出国留学网一起来看看托福听力如何进行提高?托福听力算得上是考生的一个重要失分点,那么究竟托福听力训练要怎
2018-07-19
托福听力辩音的问题,对袁腾飞听力影响是比较大的,那么接下来就和出国留学网一起来看看托福听力辩音问题如何解决?托福听力听不准问题汇总托福听力中比较让考生觉得困扰的地方在于所有解题涉及
2018-07-18
托福考试每个月都有,很多人对于听力比较头疼,出国留学网托福栏目小编整理了相关的资料,希望可以帮助考生度过考试的难关,下面是小编搜集的托福听力背景知识:太阳的相关资讯,欢迎参考!托福
2017-09-20
托福听力题目的背景常识一直是很多人感兴趣的方面,出国留学网托福栏目小编整理了相关的资料,希望可以帮助考生度过考试的难关,下面是小编搜集的托福听力背景知识:埃及象形文字的相关资讯,欢
2017-09-21
托福听力的背景知识很重要,出国留学网托福栏目小编整理了相关的资料,希望可以帮助考生度过考试的难关,下面是小编搜集的托福听力生物学背景知识的相关资讯,欢迎参考!托福听力生物学背景知识
2017-09-25
天文学一直以来都是托福听力的常考话题,那么同学们对于天文学了解吗?今天就和出国留学网的小编一起来了解一下托福听力背景素材:星云。第一大类:Diffusenebulae(不规则星云)
2018-05-07
托福听力经常出现一些关于电影的背景素材,所以同学们了解一些电影素材对于提升托福听力还是很有帮助的,那么下面就和出国留学网一起来看看托福听力背景素材:电影历史。历史电影的发展和摄影技
2018-05-23