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托福阅读中如何利用并列和递进关系词

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2018-05-29 15:50

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【 liuxue86.com - 托福阅读 】

  对于初入托福的考生来说,都会感受到托福阅读的一个难点,那就是文章内容长、信息量大,如果不能准确的找到关键词,将会为阅读速度和解题准确率带来很大的影响。和出国留学网小编一起来看看托福阅读中如何利用并列和递进关系词。

  说到并列词,and一定是最先浮现在脑海中的;那么not also...肯定是递进关系词的榜首。在托福阅读的解题过程中,我们把并列和递进归为一类,这些词的前后一定句型结构相同,词性一样,方向一致。当我们知道这个规律之后,我们至少可以在词汇题上可以大幅度运用,利用方向帮助我们排除错误答案。下面就举例为大家讲解一下。

  例题1:

  Paragraph 5: There is little doubt, however, that desertification in most areas results primarily from human activities rather than natural processes. The semiarid lands bordering the deserts exist in a delicateecological balance andare limitedin their potential to adjust to increased environmental nding populations are subjecting the land to increasing pressures to provide them with food and fuel.

  The word delicatein the passage is closest in meaning to

  Afragile

  Bpredictable

  Ccomplex

  Dvaluable

u=2249321175,2424186340&fm=27&gp=0.jpg

  在做词汇题时,如果我们认识这个词,就可以浏览选项,直接选出它的同义词,再把答案带入原文,看是否合适,这样做不仅快速并且保证正确率;如果这个单词我们不认识,亦或是不确定它的意思,我们可以分析这个单词所在的这句话,看看是否可以通过逻辑关系词来解答这道题。

  这句话我们看到有and,所以是并列结构,and连接了什么成分,从and之后开始看会更容易,这句话接的是are limited in their potential to adjust to increased environmental pressures,所以并列两个动词短语,和前面的exist in a delicate ecological balance。and之后的方向明显是负的,因为有个表示“有限的”的形容词,所以and之前的信息也是负方向,我们再看看选项,除了fragile,predictable表示“可以预测的”中性词;complex“复杂的”中性词;valuable“宝贵的”正方向的词,所以答案是A。

  提醒广大考生们,表示并列的词还有:as well as, 表示递进的关系词有:besides, in addition to, additionally, moreover, furthermore, apart from。

  下面我们来看一道修辞目的题:

  Paragraph 3: The first wells were drilled into the Ogallala during the drought years of the early 1930’s. The ensuing rapid expansion of irrigation agriculture, especially from the 1950’s onward, transformed the economy of the region. More than 100,000 wells now tap the Ogallala. Modern irrigation devices, each capable of spraying 4.5 million liters of water a day, have produced a landscape dominated by geometric patterns of circular green islands of crops. Ogallala water has enabled the High Plains region to supply significant amounts of the cotton, sorghum, wheat, and corngrown in the United States. In addition,40 percent of American grain-fed beef cattleare fattened here.

  In paragraph 3, why does the author provide the information that 40 percent of American cattle are fattened in the High Plains?

  ATo suggest that crop cultivation is not the most important part of the economy of the High Plains

  BTo indicate that not all economic activity in the High Plains is dependent on irrigation

  CTo provide another example of how water from the Ogallala has transformed the economy of the High Plains

  DTo contrast cattle-fattening practices in the High Plains with those used in other region of the United States

  修辞目的题相对于事实信息题和推断题来说,其实不算难,题干定位的信息相对明确,容易找,而且题干的信息在段落中大多数情况下都在充当例子,答案都在定位的信息前面。但是提醒大家的是,答案不一定在定位的信息的前一句。以这道题为例,定位的句子之前有信号词:in addition“除此之外”,说明定位的信息和in addition的前面一句都是举例,所以答案还要再往前,我们退到倒数第三句,这句话说的是“现代的灌溉设备能够喷洒庄稼”,而倒数第二句提到了“cotton, corn, sorghum, wheat”,很明显是crops的例句,所以倒数第三句也是例子。所以答案还要再往前,这时我们发现一句TS:irrigation agriculture transformed the economy of the region,所以答案是C。

  接下来,我们再来看一道指代题:

  The Freudian perspective, in a sense: sees us as “steam engines”. By holding in rather than venting “steam,” we set the stage for future explosions. Pent-up aggressive impulses demand outlets. They may be expressedtoward parents in indirect ways such as destroying furniture, ortheymay be expressedtoward strangers later in life.

  The word ”they” in the passage refers to

  Afuture explosions

  Bpent-up aggressive impulses

  Coutlets

  Dindirect ways

  我们发现they之前出现or, 并列连词,表示两者选其一,or的后面接的是:they may be expressed...可见or并列了两个句子,前一个句子的主语仍然是they, 所以they指代的词在上一句话中,我们知道they在这句话中是主语,所以它指代的词应该就是上句话的主语“pent-up aggressive impulses”, 答案是B。提醒广大考生:指代题现在出现的频率很低,但是做好指代题,能迅速准确地找出代词所指代的名词,我们能为句子插入题的解答节省非常多的时间。什么时候会用到代词?一定是上文提到,为了避免重复,为了提高句子的多样性,才会使用到代词,所以指代题的答案都在代词所在的句子本身,或是上一句话。

  最后,我们以一道句子插入题结束。

  Paragraph 3: Leatherbacks keep their body heat in three different ways. The first, and simplest, is size. The bigger the animal is, the lower as surface-to-volume ratio; for every ounce of body mass, there is proportionately less surface through which heat can escape. Anadult leatherback is twice the size of the biggest cheloniid sea turtles and will therefore take longer to cool off. Maintaining a high body temperature through sheer bulk is called gigantothermy. █It works for elephants, for whales, and, perhaps, it worked for many of the larger dinosaurs. █It apparently works, in a smaller way, for some other sea turtles. █Large loggerhead and green turtles can maintain their body temperature at a degree or two above that of the surrounding water, and gigantothermy is probably the way they do it. █Muscular activity helps, too, and an actively swimming green turtle may be 7°C(12.6°F) warmer than the waters it swims through.

  However, these animals have additional means of staying warm.

  拿到这个句子,首先我们注意到主语出现“代词+名词”these animals, 表示上文提到过的动物,但是我们发现除了第一处之外,其他的句子都有动物,所以我们接下来寻找第二处线索,带插入句子中出现信号词“additional means of staying warm”, additional这个信号表示上文有一种保持体温的方法,下文提到另外一种。第一个框框之前,提到了通过庞大的体积保持体温,后面的每一句都是supporting details, 举了具体动物的例子,并且给出了具体数据来显示出温度具体提高了多少,直到最后一个框框的后面提到了muscular activity, 可以看出是第二种方法,所以答案是D。

  推荐阅读:

  托福阅读速度如何提升

  托福阅读如何有效阅读文章

  如何利用托福机经提高分数

  想了解更多托福阅读网的资讯,请访问: 托福阅读

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