留学社区

目录

2018年3月3日托福阅读机经

字典 |

2018-02-08 15:52

|

【 liuxue86.com - 托福机经 】

  3月份的托福考试就快来了,那么3月3日的考试机经有哪些呢?这是不少出国人士比较关心的问题,和出国留学网一起来看看2018年3月3日托福阅读机经!欢迎阅读。

  2018年3月3日托福阅读机经

  类别:农业类 真题140316CN-P3

  Title:Agricultural Society in Eighteenth-Century British America

  In the northern American colonies, especially New England, tight-knit farming families, organized in communities of several thousand people, dotted the landscape by the mid-eighteenth century. New Englanders staked their future on a mixed economy. They cleared forests for timber used in barrels,ships, houses, and barns. They plumbed the offshore waters for fish to feed local populations. And they cultivated and grazed as much of the thin-soiled, rocky hills and bottomlands as they could recover from the forest.The farmers of the middle colonies-Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, and New York-set their wooden plows to much richer soils than New Englanders did. They enjoyed the additional advantage of setting an area already partly cleared by Native Americans who had relied more on agriculture than had New England tribes. Thus favored, mid-Atlantic farm families produced modest surpluses of corn, wheat, beef, and pork. By the mid-eighteenth century, ships from New York and Philadelphia were carrying these foodstuffs not only to the West Indies, always a primary market, but also to areas that could no longer feed themselves-England, Spain, Portugal, and even New

  England.In the North, the broad ownership of land distinguished farming society from every other agricultural

  region of the Western world. Although differences in circumstances and ability led gradually toward greater social stratification, in most communities, the truly rich and terribly poor were few and the gap between them small compared with European society. Most men other than indentured servants (servants contracted to work for a specific number of years) lived to purchase or inherit a farm of at least 50 acres. With their family’s labor, they earned a decent existence and

  provided a small inheritance for each of their children. Settlers valued land highly, for owning land ordinarily guaranteed both economic independence and political rights.

  By the eighteenth century, amid widespread property ownership, a rising population pressed against a limited land supply, especially in New England. Family farms could not be divided and subdivided indefinitely, for it took at least fifty acres(of which only a quarter could usually be cropped) to support a single family. In Concurd, Massachusetts, for example, the founders had worked farms averaging about 250 acres. A century later, in the 1730s, the average farm had shrunk by two thirds, as farm owners struggled to provide an inheritance for the three or four sons that the average

  marriage produced.

  The decreasing fertility of the soil compounded the problem of dwindling farm size in New England. When land had been plentiful, farmers planted crops in the same field for three years and then let it lie fallow (unplanted) in pasture seven years or more until it regained its fertility. But on the smaller farms of the eighteenth century, farmers had reduced fallow time to only a year or two. Such intense use of the soil reduced crop yields, forcing farmers to plow marginal land or shift to

  livestock production.

  The diminishing size and productivity of family farms forced many New Englanders to move to the frontier or out of the area altogether in the eighteen century. "Many of our old towns are too full of inhabitants for husbandry, many of them living on small shares of land, " complained one writer. In Concurd, one of every four adult males migrated from town every decade from the 1740s on, and in many towns migration out was even greater. Some drifted south to New York and

  Pennsylvania. Others sought opportunities as artisans in the coastal towns or took to the sea. More headed for the colonies, western frontier or north into New Hampshire and the eastern frontier of Maine. Several thousand New England families migrated even farther north to the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia. Throughout New England after the early eighteenth century, most farmers' sons knew that their destiny lay elsewhere.

  Wherever they took up farming, northern cultivators engaged in agricultural work routines that were far less intense than in the south. The growing season was much shorter, and the cultivation of cereal crops required incessant labor only during spring planting and autumn harvesting. This less burdensome work rhythm let many northern cultivators to fill out their calendars with intermittent work as clockmakers, shoemakers, carpenters, and weavers.

  以上是小编整理的2018年3月3日托福机经资讯,谢谢您的阅读,如果想了解更多资讯,请关注出国留学网其他栏目。

  推荐阅读:

  2018年3月3日托福写作机经

  2018年3月3日托福口语机经

  2018年3月3日托福听力机经

  想了解更多托福机经网的资讯,请访问: 托福机经

本文来源:https://toefl.liuxue86.com/t/3620720.html
延伸阅读
2018年7月8日托福机经汇总,很多同学已经迫不及待的想要了解了吧,那么接下来就和出国留学网一起来看看吧!2018年7月8日托福机经汇总1   &nb
2018-07-10
写作机经对于很多正在备考的同学来说是非常有用的,同学们通过口语话题来锻炼自己,那么接下来就和出国留学网来看看2018年7月8日托福写作机经。独立写作Whichonedoyoupre
2018-07-10
对于很多正在备考托福的同学们来说,机经的重要性不言而喻,那么接下来就和出国留学网来看看2018年7月8日托福阅读机经。horticulture和agriculture男女分工和社会
2018-07-10
对于2018年7月8日的托福考试,不知道这次的题目难度怎么样?口语有哪些话题?接下来就和出国留学网来看看2018年7月8日托福口语机经。Task1Whatdoyouthinkist
2018-07-10
对于2018年7月8日托福听力机经,相信很多最近准备考托福的同学都是非常感兴趣的,那么接下来就和出国留学网来看看吧!Conversation女生想在museum实习,但是这个岗位只
2018-07-10
对于很多准备考托福的同学来说,托福机经对大家还是很有帮助的,那么今天就和出国留学网的小编一起来了解一下2018年3月31日托福阅读机经。PassageOne学科分类:历史学题目:英
2018-04-11
托福考试需要做好全方位的准备,很多机经其实都输不错的复习材料,那么有哪些好的机经呢?这想必是不少出国人士比较关心的问题,你可以往下看文章或者点击收藏,和出国留学网一起来看看2018
2018-03-05
对于很多准备考托福的同学来说,不知道准备得怎么样了呢?今天就和出国留学网的小编一起来了解一下2018年3月31日托福阅读机经整理。    &
2018-04-11
对于马上要考托福的朋友来说,看一看机经对于大家来说也没有坏处,和出国留学网小编一起来看看2018年3月31日托福考试阅读机经吧。2018年3月31日托福考试阅读机经预测(部分内容展
2018-03-23
2018年1-3月份共进行了7次托福考试,仍旧以“新旧拼盘”为主,其中托福写作均是旧题重考,2018年希望考生继续通过托福机经,收获好成绩。和出国留学网小编一起来看看2018年3月
2018-03-19