Should the Brain Drain Be Stopped by Restrictions？
It is said that Shanghai’s musicians abroad could form a world class symphony orchestra（2）.
But the Shanghai Symphony Orchestra once failed to find a qualified conductor for a whole year！
A similar situation exists in science， medicine and sports circles.
Stopping the outflow of talent depends on creating a sound domestic environment rather than simply setting up barriers for those who wish to go abroad.
A handful of people go abroad to seek a comfortable life. But most Chinese intellectuals emigrate because they cannot bring their talent into full play in their motherland.
Many conductors trained by the Shanghai Conservatory of Music（3） have gone abroad either because they cannot find jobs in symphony orchestras due to the competition fro places， or because they cannot develop themselves in orchestras where promotion comes only by way of seniority.
We face a keen shortage of talent， but one batch of gifted people after another have gone abroad（4）. The situation is grim.
It is impossible to improve the conditions for all intellectuals by a wide margin（5）. But it is possible for governments at all levels to create a better environment for their development.
The outflow of talent is a loss to our nation as well as a pressure forcing us to optimize the environment （6） for the talented.
Listen to the text with the help of the following notes.
1. Brain Drain： 人才外流。
2. a world class symphony orchestra： 世界一流水平的交响乐队。
3. Shanghai Conservatory of Music： 上海音乐学院。
4. one batch of gifted people after another have gone abroad： 一批又一批的有才华的人们相继出国。
5. by a wide margin ： 大幅度地。
6. to optimize the environment：尽可能改善工作环境。