A number of factors related to the voice reveal the personality of the speaker. The first is the broad area of communication， which includes imparting information by use of language， communicating with a group or an individual， and specialized communication through performance. A person conveys thoughts and ideas through choice of words， by a tone of voice that is pleasant or unpleasant， gentle or harsh， by the rhythm that is inherent within the language itself， and by speech rhythms that are flowing and regular or uneven and hesitant， and finally， by the pitch and melody of the utterance. When speaking before a group， a person＇s tone may indicate unsureness or fright， confidence or calm. At interpersonal levels， the tone may reflect ideas and feelings over and above the words chosen， or may belie them. Here the conversant＇s tone can consciously or unconsciously reflect intuitive sympathy or antipathy， lack of concern or interest， fatigue， anxiety， enthusiasm or excitement， all of which are usually discernible by the acute listener. Public performance is a manner of communication that is highly specialized with its own techniques for obtaining effects by voice and /or gesture. The motivation derived from the text， and in the case of singing， the music， in combination with the performer＇s skills， personality， and ability to create empathy will determine the success of artistic， political， or pedagogic communication.
Second， the voice gives psychological clues to a person＇s self-image， perception of others， and emotional health. Self-image can be indicated by a tone of voice that is confident， pretentious， shy， aggressive， outgoing， or exuberant， to name only a few personality traits. Also the sound may give a clue to the facade or mask of that person， for example， a shy person hiding behind an overconfident front. How a speaker perceives the listener＇s receptiveness， interest， or sympathy in any given conversation can drastically alter the tone of presentation， by encouraging or discouraging the speaker. Emotional health is evidenced in the voice by free and melodic sounds of the happy， by constricted and harsh sound of the angry， and by dull and lethargic qualities of the depressed.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss？
（A） The function of the voice in performance
（B） The connection between voice and personality
（C） Communication styles
（D） The production of speech
2. What does the author mean by stating that， ＂At interpersonal levels， tone may reflect ideas and
feelings over and above the words chosen＂ （lines 9-10）？
（A） Feelings are expressed with different words than ideas are.
（B） The tone of voice can carry information beyond the meaning of words.
（C）A high tone of voice reflects an emotional communication.
（D） Feelings are more difficult to express than ideas.
3. The word ＂Here＂ in line 10 refers to
（A） interpersonal interactions
（B） the tone
（C） ideas and feelings
（D） words chosen
4. The word ＂derived＂ in line 15 is closest in meaning to
5. Why does the author mention ＂artistic， political， or pedagogic communication＂ in line 17？
（A）As examples of public performance
（B）As examples of basic styles of communication
（C） To contrast them to singing
（D） To introduce the idea of self-image
rding to the passage ， an exuberant tone of voice， may be an indication of a person＇s
（A） general physical health
（C） ability to communicate
（D） vocal quality
rding to the passage ， an overconfident front may hide
8. The word ＂drastically＂ in line 24 is closest in meaning to
9. The word ＂evidenced＂ in line 25 is closest in meaning to
rding to the passage ， what does a constricted and harsh voice indicate？