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2018年1月27日托福考试阅读机经预测

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2018-01-24 17:36

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【 liuxue86.com - 托福机经 】

  托福是很多同学出国留学的必考项目,大家都是希望能考过托福的,那么出国留学网小编带大家来看看2018年1月27日托福考试阅读机经预测,希望能给大家一些帮助。

  2018年1月27日托福考试阅读机经预测之真题测练(部分内容):

u=2112944245,1896909916&fm=27&gp=0.jpg

  真题来源:2015-4-12CN Origin of the Solar System

  The orderly nature of our solar system leads most astronomers to conclude that the planets formed at essentially the same time and from the same primordial (original) material as the Sun. This material formed a vast cloud of dust and gases called a nebula. The nebular hypothesis suggests that all bodes of the solar system formed from an enormous nebular cloud consisting mostly of hydrogen and helium as well as a small percent of all the other heavier elements known to exist. The heavier substances in this frigid cloud of dust and gases consisted mostly of such elements as silicon, aluminum, iron, and calcium—the substances of today’s common rocky materials. Also prevalent were other familiar elements, including oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen.

  Nearly five billion years ago, some external influence, such as a shock wave traveling from a catastrophic explosion (supernova), may have triggered the collapse of this huge cloud of gases and minute grains of heavier elements, causing the cloud to begin to slowly contract due to the gravitational interactions among its particles. As this slowly spiraling nebula contracted, it rotated faster and faster for the same reason ice- skaters do when they draw their arms toward their bodies. Eventually, the inward pull of gravity came into balance with the outward force caused by the rotational motion of the nebula. By this time the once vast cloud had assumed a flat disk shape with a large concentration of material at its center, called the protosun (pre-Sun). Astronomers are fairly confident that the nebular cloud formed a disk because similar structures have been detected around other stars.

  During the collapse, gravitational energy was converted to thermal energy (heat), causing the temperature of the inner portion of the nebula to dramatically rise. At such high temperatures, the dust grains broke up into molecules and energized atomic particles. However, at distances beyond the orbit of Mars, the temperatures probably remained quite low. At -200°C, the tiny particles in the outer portion of the nebula were likely covered with a thick layer of ices made of frozen water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and methane. Some of this material still resides in the outermost reaches of the solar system in a region called the Oort cloud.

  The formation of the Sun marked the end of the period of contraction and thus the end of gravitational heating. Temperatures in the region where the inner planets now reside began to decline. The decrease in temperature caused those substances with high melting points to condense into tiny particles that began to coalesce (join together). Such materials as iron and nickel and the elements of which the rock-forming minerals are composed—silicon, calcium, sodium, and so forth—formed metallic and rocky clumps that orbited the Sun. Repeated collisions caused these masses to coalesce into larger asteroid-size bodies, called protoplanets, which in a few tens of millions of years accumulated into the four inner planets we call Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Not all of these clumps of matter were incorporated into the protoplanets. Rocky and metallic pieces that still remain in orbit are called meteoroids.

  As more and more material was swept up by the inner planets, the high- velocity impact of nebular debris caused the temperatures of these bodies to rise. Because of their relatively high temperatures and weak gravitational fields, the inner planets were unable to accumulate much of the lighter components of the nebular cloud. The lightest of these, hydrogen and helium, were eventually whisked from the inner solar system by the solar winds.

  At the same time that the inner planets were forming, the larger, outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), along with their extensive satellite systems, were also developing. Because of low temperatures far from the Sun, the material from which these planets formed contained a high percentage of ices—water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and methane—as well as rocky and metallic debris. The accumulation of ices partly accounts for the large sizes and low densities of the outer planets.

  The two most massive planets, Jupiter and Saturn, had surface gravities sufficient to attract and hold large quantities of even the lightest elements—hydrogen and helium.

  2018年1月27日托福考试阅读机经预测之高频词汇(部分内容):

词汇同义词释义
astonishingsurprising令人惊讶的
attest toprovide evidence of证实
augmentadd to 增加
authorityexpert专家,权威
autonomousindependent独立的
back upsupport支持,援助
bafflepuzzle困惑的
barrier toimpediment障碍
burgeoningincreasingly增长迅速的
ceasestop停止
chaoticdisorganize混沌
clustergroup
coalescejoint使…联合;使…合并
coexistconcurrent共存
coincide withcorrespond to符合;与...相一致
collapsefall inward崩溃;倒塌
collateassemble聚集
compactcontract收缩,压紧
comparativeconsiderable相当的
compatiblecoexisting与……相容的
compellingpersuasive激发兴趣的

  以上是2018年1月27日托福考试阅读机经预测的部分内容

  想了解更多托福机经网的资讯,请访问: 托福机经

本文来源:https://toefl.liuxue86.com/t/3600923.html
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